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英美烟公司与中国烤烟的发展

在(zai)中国烟(yan)(yan)草博物馆农(nong)业馆里,有一(yi)组雕塑呈现了(le)这样一(yi)个(ge)场景:一(yi)个(ge)外国人在(zai)烟(yan)(yan)田和烟(yan)(yan)农(nong)说着什么(如图)。这个(ge)场景是对上世纪初(chu),英美烟(yan)(yan)公司派出技术人员指导中国烟(yan)(yan)农(nong)种植(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)叶这一(yi)历(li)史事(shi)实的(de)(de)再现,揭示了(le)烤烟(yan)(yan)在(zai)中国发展的(de)(de)一(yi)段历(li)史。

英美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si)于(yu)1902年成立(li),在(zai)制定(ding)公(gong)司(si)发展战略时,作为(wei)其拓(tuo)展海外市(shi)场的(de)(de)主要目标,中(zhong)国(guo)市(shi)场一直受到该(gai)公(gong)司(si)的(de)(de)关(guan)注。英美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si)在(zai)中(zhong)国(guo)开设(she)卷(juan)烟(yan)(yan)工厂后不(bu)久,曾派(pai)出美(mei)(mei)国(guo)弗吉尼亚州的(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)草专家,跑遍中(zhong)国(guo)各省,调查土壤和烟(yan)(yan)叶生(sheng)长情况(kuang),结果却不(bu)容乐(le)观(guan)。

当时,中国(guo)(guo)尚不能(neng)生产出制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)高档(dang)(dang)卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)。的(de)(de)确(que),种(zhong)植高档(dang)(dang)卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)所需(xu)的(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)并不完(wan)全取决于烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong),还(hai)需(xu)要考虑(lv)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)是(shi)否适(shi)(shi)合某地区(qu)土(tu)壤(rang)及气候条件。此外,还(hai)必须(xu)掌握烤(kao)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)科学方法,因(yin)为(wei)即使(shi)最优质的(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),如(ru)(ru)果(guo)烘烤(kao)失败,最终也会(hui)影响卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)品(pin)(pin)质。在中国(guo)(guo)很多烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)区(qu),即使(shi)土(tu)壤(rang)等条件已经具备,如(ru)(ru)广(guang)东、福建、浙江(jiang)、江(jiang)西、安徽(hui)等地,但生产出来的(de)(de)烤(kao)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),不论何种(zhong)品(pin)(pin)种(zhong),都不能(neng)达到制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)高档(dang)(dang)卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)标准(zhun)。这种(zhong)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)通常被称为(wei)土(tu)种(zhong)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),其颜色和(he)味道都不适(shi)(shi)宜制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)高档(dang)(dang)卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),因(yin)此在中国(guo)(guo)开设卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)工厂(chang)的(de)(de)最初(chu)10年里(li),英美烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)公司只能(neng)依靠(kao)进口烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye),特(te)别是(shi)从(cong)美国(guo)(guo)进口烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)。

1912年以后,英(ying)美(mei)烟(yan)公(gong)司为(wei)降(jiang)低卷(juan)烟(yan)生(sheng)产(chan)成(cheng)本,争取(qu)实现(xian)利润最(zui)大化,决(jue)定(ding)从美(mei)国招(zhao)募(mu)有(you)丰富经验的(de)烟(yan)农(nong),将他们派到(dao)中(zhong)国,在(zai)中(zhong)国农(nong)村开辟适宜美(mei)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)烤烟(yan)的(de)生(sheng)产(chan)基地(di)。英(ying)美(mei)烟(yan)公(gong)司首(shou)先(xian)在(zai)湖北省的(de)老河口(kou)、山东省的(de)威(wei)海卫(今威(wei)海)和潍县(今潍坊)一带采取(qu)租赁土(tu)地(di)的(de)方法,建立试(shi)验站,开始小规模试(shi)验,主(zhu)要种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植美(mei)种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)烟(yan)叶。在(zai)此过程中(zhong),英(ying)美(mei)烟(yan)公(gong)司成(cheng)功(gong)培育出了几种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)适合在(zai)中(zhong)国种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植的(de)烟(yan)叶。1914年,潍县的(de)坊子试(shi)验站成(cheng)为(wei)推广新型烟(yan)叶品种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)中(zhong)心。

英(ying)美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si)在华相(xiang)关负责人与潍县官员沟通,希望(wang)当地(di)政(zheng)府能选派经(jing)验丰富的(de)(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)农(nong),让他们(men)学习如(ru)何科(ke)学种(zhong)植烟(yan)(yan)叶。英(ying)美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si)免费提(ti)供烟(yan)(yan)苗和所需(xu)肥(fei)料,赠(zeng)送烟(yan)(yan)叶种(zhong)植方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)指导(dao)书册,并由公(gong)司(si)种(zhong)植专家(jia)指导(dao)烟(yan)(yan)农(nong)具体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)种(zhong)植方法。为了(le)鼓励(li)烟(yan)(yan)农(nong),英(ying)美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si)还(hai)承诺,在公(gong)司(si)指导(dao)下种(zhong)出的(de)(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)叶,如(ru)卖给英(ying)美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si),相(xiang)较于其他类(lei)型的(de)(de)(de)烟(yan)(yan)叶,烟(yan)(yan)农(nong)能获(huo)得更(geng)多收益。在这样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)情况下,烟(yan)(yan)农(nong)科(ke)学种(zhong)烟(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)积极性自然提(ti)高了(le)。用同样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)方法,英(ying)美(mei)(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)司(si)推(tui)动了(le)安徽(hui)以及(ji)河南(nan)一带的(de)(de)(de)美(mei)(mei)种(zhong)烟(yan)(yan)叶种(zhong)植。

从1914年(nian)起,英美(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)先(xian)后在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)山东(dong)、河南、安徽成(cheng)功推广(guang)科学(xue)种植烟(yan)(yan)叶的(de)(de)方法(fa),并(bing)建(jian)立了3个(ge)原料(liao)供(gong)应(ying)基地。自1919年(nian)起,英美(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)中国收购的(de)(de)美(mei)种烟(yan)(yan)叶数量已(yi)经是(shi)该公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)从其他国家进口量的(de)(de)3倍。原料(liao)供(gong)应(ying)问题得到解决,这(zhei)为英美(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)中国的(de)(de)迅速发展奠定了基础。英美(mei)烟(yan)(yan)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)中国形成(cheng)了一个(ge)全(quan)国性(xing)的(de)(de)生产基地,这(zhei)也为烤烟(yan)(yan)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)中国的(de)(de)发展铺平了道路。

 

作者单位(wei):中国烟草博(bo)物馆

转(zhuan)自:东方(fang)烟草网