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桂北吸烟风情

黄(huang)祥进(jin)

 

广西桂北地(di)区(qu)吸(xi)食烟草(cao)的(de)历(li)史悠久。由于桂北地(di)区(qu)是壮、瑶、苗(miao)、彝等少数民(min)族聚集的(de)地(di)区(qu),因(yin)此(ci),长期以(yi)来(lai),当地(di)少数民(min)族敬烟、送烟、婚烟的(de)风俗也别具特(te)色,形成鲜明的(de)地(di)区(qu)风情。

敬烟(yan)

桂北地区民(min)间久有(you)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)礼仪(yi)。亲戚朋友到来时,由主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)先(xian)向(xiang)客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。到别人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)家(jia)求人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)办(ban)事(shi)时,客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)先(xian)向(xiang)主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。在全(quan)州、永(yong)福一(yi)(yi)带,敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)请别人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)吸(xi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)有(you)一(yi)(yi)定礼仪(yi),敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)方法(fa)也(ye)有(you)讲究。民(min)国(guo)时期,卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)是稀(xi)罕物(wu),一(yi)(yi)般人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)家(jia)只(zhi)能借用(yong)水烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)袋、旱烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)杆(gan)之类吸(xi)食(shi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)丝(si)。敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)大致程序(xu)是:由主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)先(xian)装好(hao)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)丝(si),用(yong)手(shou)掌将(jiang)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)嘴抹上(shang)几圈,表示(shi)干净(jing)了,再用(yong)双手(shou)将(jiang)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)具和(he)火(huo)具递(di)(di)给客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)。如(ru)(ru)用(yong)纸卷(juan)(juan)的(de)“喇叭(ba)筒”敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)先(xian)卷(juan)(juan)好(hao),不沾口水,用(yong)双手(shou)递(di)(di)给客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)。有(you)钱(qian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)家(jia)用(yong)卷(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),取两(liang)支(zhi)(zhi)在手(shou)上(shang)排成(cheng)前后(hou)(hou)递(di)(di)给客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren),表示(shi)客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)远道而来,是尊(zun)贵的(de);客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)来我家(jia)是“两(liang)相(xiang)好(hao)”,是“双喜临门(men)”,请吸(xi)上(shang)面(mian)(mian)那支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。如(ru)(ru)果客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)取后(hou)(hou)面(mian)(mian)那支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),意思是主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)才是老大,应吸(xi)上(shang)面(mian)(mian)那支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。如(ru)(ru)果来的(de)客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)不止一(yi)(yi)个,主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)在敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)完第一(yi)(yi)位(wei)客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)后(hou)(hou),再配一(yi)(yi)支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)放(fang)在第一(yi)(yi)支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)下(xia)面(mian)(mian)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)(jing)奉给后(hou)(hou)面(mian)(mian)的(de)客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren),而后(hou)(hou)面(mian)(mian)的(de)客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)仍(reng)只(zhi)取下(xia)面(mian)(mian)的(de)那支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),最后(hou)(hou)主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)仍(reng)然吸(xi)到上(shang)面(mian)(mian)的(de)第一(yi)(yi)支(zhi)(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。这表示(shi)主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)受到客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)尊(zun)重,客(ke)(ke)(ke)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)也(ye)为主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)多(duo)礼而两(liang)情融洽。

恭城(cheng)瑶族把敬烟视为重要礼(li)节(jie),特别是把姻(yin)亲作为至亲。主(zhu)人敬烟时要先将烟丝(si)填入烟锅,压实(shi)点燃,先吸(xi)上一口,故作陶醉状,才双手将烟杆递给客人吸(xi)用。

送烟

龙胜各(ge)族自治县各(ge)族同(tong)胞有一个习惯,客人(ren)(ren)至(zhi)家(jia),主人(ren)(ren)视(shi)来者多(duo)少(shao)决(jue)定送烟数量(liang)。人(ren)(ren)多(duo)时(shi)每(mei)人(ren)(ren)送烟叶一皮(pi)(片),人(ren)(ren)少(shao)时(shi)每(mei)人(ren)(ren)送三(san)皮(pi)。若是至(zhi)亲贵客临(lin)门(men),至(zhi)少(shao)送上(shang)六皮(pi),也有送上(shang)一把的。

在(zai)桂北一(yi)(yi)些农村,红白(bai)喜事买(mai)烟送(song)(song)(song)(song)礼也有一(yi)(yi)定(ding)的(de)规(gui)矩。如(ru)(ru)(ru)年轻人(ren)结婚,送(song)(song)(song)(song)礼要(yao)送(song)(song)(song)(song)好烟,但以舅(jiu)(jiu)父(fu)的(de)烟最为高档(dang)(dang)。如(ru)(ru)(ru)其他亲(qin)戚(qi)送(song)(song)(song)(song)烟的(de)档(dang)(dang)次超过舅(jiu)(jiu)父(fu),舅(jiu)(jiu)父(fu)则(ze)会(hui)不高兴。闹洞(dong)房(fang)时(shi),都是用舅(jiu)(jiu)父(fu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)烟发(fa)给(ji)别(bie)人(ren)。白(bai)喜事(指70岁以上的(de)老(lao)人(ren)病故),亲(qin)戚(qi)朋友奔(ben)丧(sang)时(shi)亦要(yao)送(song)(song)(song)(song)烟,特别(bie)是已出嫁(jia)的(de)女儿回家奔(ben)丧(sang)时(shi),一(yi)(yi)定(ding)要(yao)买(mai)烟散盘子(zi)(即发(fa)给(ji)晚上守(shou)灵和唱孝歌的(de)人(ren))。孝子(zi)一(yi)(yi)定(ding)要(yao)给(ji)来帮忙办(ban)丧(sang)事的(de)人(ren)每(mei)人(ren)发(fa)一(yi)(yi)包烟。如(ru)(ru)(ru)丧(sang)者生前吸烟,孝子(zi)则(ze)在(zai)守(shou)灵的(de)三日内,每(mei)天(tian)早晚将一(yi)(yi)支烟点(dian)燃敬在(zai)灵前,曰“祭如(ru)(ru)(ru)在(zai)”。

灌阳县(xian)的彝族(zu)同胞不但好(hao)酒,而且嗜好(hao)吸(xi)烟(yan),他们认(ren)为能吸(xi)烟(yan)象征着人丁兴旺、家庭和(he)睦,所(suo)以当地素有(you)“烟(yan)是子孙烟(yan)”的说法(fa)。

婚烟

恭城(cheng)瑶族自(zi)治县的瑶民不分(fen)男女,常带(dai)(dai)烟杆(gan)。男的在衣(yi)袋上插一(yi)支(zhi)吊(diao)着绣(xiu)花烟包的细(xi)(xi)管银质短烟杆(gan),女的在绣(xiu)满花纹(wen)的腰带(dai)(dai)上别着一(yi)支(zhi)吊(diao)着绣(xiu)花烟包的细(xi)(xi)斑竹(zhu)管银嘴铜(tong)斗(dou)长烟杆(gan),配(pei)上一(yi)套亮(liang)丽的民族服装(zhuang),别具一(yi)格(ge)。

瑶族同胞把(ba)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)草(cao)作(zuo)为婚(hun)姻媒介之一。男(nan)方(fang)向女方(fang)求婚(hun)需通过“传烟(yan)(yan)(yan)”进行。过去瑶族青(qing)年结婚(hun)由父(fu)母(mu)(mu)包办,父(fu)母(mu)(mu)为儿子物色好对象后(hou),就(jiu)通过熟人(ren)向女方(fang)父(fu)母(mu)(mu)传递(di)青(qing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)一叶,以示求婚(hun),称为“问烟(yan)(yan)(yan)”。女方(fang)父(fu)母(mu)(mu)接(jie)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)叶后(hou),如不同意(yi),就(jiu)将青(qing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)退(tui)(tui)回(hui);如同意(yi)就(jiu)将青(qing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)留下(xia)。男(nan)方(fang)父(fu)母(mu)(mu)根据对方(fang)是否退(tui)(tui)回(hui)青(qing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)决定(ding)下(xia)一步骤。如对方(fang)未(wei)退(tui)(tui)回(hui),就(jiu)继续请人(ren)再(zai)向女方(fang)父(fu)母(mu)(mu)传递(di)青(qing)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)。第二次传的烟(yan)(yan)(yan)如未(wei)被对方(fang)退(tui)(tui)回(hui),则男(nan)方(fang)父(fu)母(mu)(mu)即可请媒人(ren)或亲自去女方(fang)家(jia)里求婚(hun)。

恭城瑶族青年结婚时(shi)(shi),舅父要送(song)(song)给外甥一(yi)对(dui)手镯和一(yi)支铜(tong)烟(yan)杆。当女(nv)方送(song)(song)亲(qin)队(dui)伍(wu)到男方家(jia)时(shi)(shi),男方接亲(qin)人员要到村头迎亲(qin)。互相礼拜(bai)毕,男方要给来(lai)人敬几片旱烟(yan)叶(ye),然后(hou)进入(ru)厅(ting)堂,点(dian)燃(ran)油灯供(gong)来(lai)人吸烟(yan)用。入(ru)座时(shi)(shi)客人上坐,主家(jia)在外作陪(pei),以酒(jiu)(jiu)代茶(cha)先敬客人两杯,双方大(da)伯(bo)代表亲(qin)家(jia)要“认亲(qin)家(jia)”,男方先敬赠几两旱烟(yan)叶(ye),再礼节性地对(dui)歌(ge)或对(dui)话(hua),接着(zhe)吃油茶(cha)泡饭、喝酒(jiu)(jiu),同时(shi)(shi)唱敬烟(yan)歌(ge)。其时(shi)(shi)媒公还要赠亲(qin)家(jia)一(yi)扎旱烟(yan)叶(ye),以示敬意。次日茶(cha)毕,男方再请送(song)(song)亲(qin)队(dui)伍(wu)吸烟(yan)、喝酒(jiu)(jiu)、吃茶(cha)。之后(hou),新郎即随(sui)女(nv)方回门。

兴安县华(hua)江瑶族自治乡瑶民(min)结婚时,多半是(shi)将(jiang)新(xin)郎送到(dao)女家上门(men)。其(qi)仪式是(shi)女方先在(zai)堂(tang)屋摆(bai)好炭(tan)火、板凳,客人进门(men)时,先敬槟(bin)榔,接着敬烟,然后(hou)(hou)倒水(shui)给新(xin)郎洗(xi)脚,再接过(guo)新(xin)郎的包袱(fu)雨(yu)伞(san),待洗(xi)过(guo)后(hou)(hou)方坐席讲话。

 

来源: 中国烟(yan)草(cao)博物馆

转自(zi):东(dong)方烟草网