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民国时期的长沙烟草

常莎   来源: 湖南(nan)烟草

民国(guo)时期长沙的烟草业曾(ceng)名噪一时,从开(kai)始的烟丝加工(gong)到后来的手工(gong)卷烟,乃(nai)至(zhi)机制(zhi)卷烟都十分繁盛,到抗日战(zhan)争时期,长沙上交的卷烟专卖税,曾(ceng)居全国(guo)第(di)一。

长(zhang)沙烟(yan)(yan)草种植(zhi)始于(yu)清中叶(ye)。据1817年(nian)(nian)(嘉庆二(er)十二(er)年(nian)(nian))《宁乡县(xian)志》记载:“菠(bo)(烟(yan)(yan))春(chun)初下(xia)种,春(chun)末(mo)裁,连山接岭。肥者叶(ye)大,茎可高(gao)五六(liu)尺,叶(ye)环(huan)茎参差,膏可粘手(shou)。六(liu)月摘,夹(jia)以竹(zhu)折曝之,近年(nian)(nian)民(min)多(duo)业此。”1877年(nian)(nian)(光绪三年(nian)(nian))《善化县(xian)志》也载:“近年(nian)(nian)种焉(烟(yan)(yan))几成美利(li),或至废田园而为,一(yi)亩之焉可获利(li)数(shu)倍(bei)。”可见,到(dao)清代后期长(zhang)沙农村(cun)的烟(yan)(yan)叶(ye)生产已向(xiang)商品(pin)生产转变。民(min)国后,烟(yan)(yan)叶(ye)种植(zhi)面积进(jin)一(yi)步扩大,1926年(nian)(nian)仅宁乡一(yi)县(xian)就产烟(yan)(yan)叶(ye)6000担,远销湘(xiang)潭、衡(heng)阳、沉陵、四川(chuan)、上海(hai)等地。

长沙(sha)地(di)区的刨(bao)(bao)丝作坊是(shi)清(qing)中(zhong)叶从福(fu)建、江西传入的,到清(qing)末(mo)民初已(yi)十分发达。福(fu)建人开设的刨(bao)(bao)丝作坊,选用(yong)福(fu)建汀(ting)州、上杭等地(di)运来烟(yan)叶,自(zi)制(zhi)自(zi)销,所产烟(yan)丝称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)“建条(tiao)”,色(se)泽金黄(huang),气味芬(fen)芳,在(zai)长沙(sha)市场甚为(wei)行销。有(you)一种印有(you)彩色(se)“仙(xian)女图(tu)”的“建条(tiao)”,包装精美,在(zai)国民政府实业部注了册,每包(半斤)售银1.5元左右,是(shi)湖南(nan)省的名(ming)牌烟(yan)丝。江西人加工的烟(yan)丝称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)“西条(tiao)”;本地(di)商人用(yong)宁乡黄(huang)烟(yan)和湘潭下湾叶刨(bao)(bao)成的丝烟(yan),称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)“土条(tiao)”。到1922年,长沙(sha)有(you)烟(yan)丝作坊116家,形成较大行业。30年代以后(hou),随着卷(juan)烟(yan)业的兴起,刨(bao)(bao)丝作坊逐步衰落。

1907年(nian)(清光绪三(san)十三(san)年(nian)),英美烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)草(cao)(cao)公司来长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)设(she)立分公司,推(tui)销纸(zhi)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),“哈(ha)德门”等牌号香烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)路牌和壁画广告随处可(ke)见,从此长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)人的(de)吸(xi)(xi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)方(fang)式有所改变(bian),由吸(xi)(xi)旱烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)逐步转变(bian)为吸(xi)(xi)纸(zhi)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)开(kai)(kai)始有不(bu)少(shao)商贩从贵(gui)州(zhou)、河南(nan)、广东等地(di)(di)购入烤(kao)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),掺杂本省的(de)晾晒烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)叶,仿照洋烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),制作手(shou)(shou)工(gong)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)出(chu)售。抗(kang)日战争(zheng)爆发(fa)后(hou),沦陷区各(ge)机(ji)制卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)厂(chang)(chang)停业(ye),各(ge)外商烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)草(cao)(cao)公司也相继撤走(zou),西(xi)南(nan)大(da)(da)后(hou)方(fang)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)奇(qi)缺,许多(duo)长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)人和外地(di)(di)来长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)的(de)“难民”看准了这(zhei)个挣钱(qian)的(de)机(ji)会,开(kai)(kai)始生产(chan)手(shou)(shou)工(gong)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。为了占领大(da)(da)后(hou)方(fang)的(de)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)市场(chang),长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)手(shou)(shou)工(gong)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)开(kai)(kai)始规模化生产(chan),加工(gong)工(gong)艺有所改进,产(chan)品按(an)等级作价,不(bu)少(shao)作坊(fang)和工(gong)厂(chang)(chang)有了自己的(de)牌号和商标。到1943年(nian),长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)共有较大(da)(da)的(de)手(shou)(shou)工(gong)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)厂(chang)(chang)56家,从业(ye)人员达(da)4000人,年(nian)产(chan)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)3万余(yu)箱(每箱5万支)。其中(zhong),规模最大(da)(da)的(de)要数华中(zhong)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)草(cao)(cao)股份(fen)有限公司(华中(zhong)手(shou)(shou)工(gong)卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)厂(chang)(chang))。该厂(chang)(chang)系(xi)长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)锦大(da)(da)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)行(xing)总经(jing)理肖哲(zhe)臣等人所开(kai)(kai)设(she),工(gong)人达(da)1000余(yu)人,1940年(nian)投产(chan),首(shou)批出(chu)口“七七”“坦克”等牌号卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan),随后(hou)又出(chu)品“飞蝶”“红桥”“挺进”等牌号卷(juan)(juan)(juan)(juan)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)。生产(chan)工(gong)艺考(kao)究(jiu),用胶(jiao)版纸(zhi)彩印商标,产(chan)品行(xing)销本市和湘西(xi)南(nan)、广西(xi)等地(di)(di)。至于家庭(ting)作坊(fang)和摊贩制作者更是多(duo)如牛毛,以致长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)行(xing)林立,烟(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)(yan)草(cao)(cao)业(ye)成为战时支撑长(zhang)(zhang)沙(sha)(sha)(sha)经(jing)济的(de)重要行(xing)业(ye)。